Onsite Job Training


- A job, employment, work or occupation, is a person's role in a company or organisation. A job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment for a living or mission. Many people have multiple jobs role (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent, coach or mentor etc.

- An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career. The two may differ in that one usually retires from their career, versus resignation or termination from a job.

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A “mini history” of OJT

  • Jobs of adults have been taught to children or learner/employee to prepare them for adulthood
  • In order to manage changes in the complexity, volume, and content of work, job training also evolved


  • “As man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter, and language, the need for training became an essential ingredient in the march of civilization.” (Steinmetz, 1976, p. 1-3)
  • On-the-job training (OJT), sometimes called direct instruction (or sit-by-me training in England; King, 1964, p. xvii), is the earliest kind of training
  • OJT has long proven to be an important means of raising the job competencies of employees in many companies for many years now
  • A good Structured OJT Program consists of four main components: Roadmap; Lesson Guides; Job Performance Measures (JPM); Supporting Documentation (Training material and worksheets)
  • Advantage:
    • Instant feedback about what the learner is doing right or wrong, allowing correction of the erroneous action immediately
    • Realistic – no transfer of learning is required
    • Inexpensive because no special equipment is needed other than what is normally used on the job
    • Enables workers to be “performance-ready” so that they can keep up with the dynamic changes in their jobs with minimum difficulty

Duties & Critical Functions

A job role may comprise one or multiple work functions (duties) performed by a person to meet the expectations of the job the person is hired for

Main Task

  • Each Duty can make up a few main tasks
  • Unlike academic tasks, whole tasks are authentic workplace tasks performed on the job by a worker
  • the tasks performed at the workplace by making references to your trainee’s job descriptions or organisation’s other sources of information such as SOPs

Sub Tasks and Task Element (Steps)

  • These are the sub-tasks of the whole task.
  • Each main task should consist of two or more Sub-task and each Sub-task is comprised of a few task elements (steps) that reflect all the actions (activities) necessary to complete it.
  • Identify and list all the task elements (steps) in the sequence in which they are normally performed.
  • Begin each sub-task statement with an action verb that describes it.

Key Points

    • Critical requirements or practices for the task to be performed well
    • Specified for ensuring they are imparted during training
    • Safety
      • What are the safety precautions to observe when performing each sub-task or steps?
      • What hazards or accidents might be encountered while performing each sub-task, or the task?
      • What safety information or concern is necessary when performing each sub-task, or the task?
    • Attitudes
      • What are the attitudes important for performing the sub-task successfully?
      • Does the worker need to interact with others, for instance co-workers and customers?
    • Decision
      • What are the decisions that the worker needs to make while performing each individual sub-task or the task as a whole?
      • What are the decisions that will result in a success or failure situation or in a satisfied or dissatisfied customer/employer?
      • Does the worker decide when the service or product meets quality standards?
    • Cues
      • What are the signs(See, hear, smell, fell, taste ) present and information available that will guide the decision-making?
      • How do you know when to begin and end a sub-task or the task?


    • Error
      • What are the decisions that the worker needs to make while performing each individual sub-task or the task as a whole?
      • What are the decisions that will result in a success or failure situation or in a satisfied or dissatisfied customer/employer?
      • Does the worker decide when the service or product meets quality standards?

Task Standard

    • Criteria that define successful task performance or how well the employees are expected to perform the task
    • Specified for gathering observable and measurable evidence to show successful performance and completion of the task.
    • Standard used on tools - Indicates the major tools, equipment, plant/machinery and materials that will be used in the occupation
    • Standard performance - Specifies the task that an individual is expected and required to perform which include the range of variables and conditions to which the standard is intended to apply
    • Standard performance criteria - Specifies the quality or characteristics of competent performance; Provides observable and measurable evidence to show the successful completion of performance
    • Standard performance knowledge - Specifies the underpinning knowledge required to support the performance

Task analysis

    • Process that identifies and examines the tasks performed by humans as they interact with systems.
    • Leads to more efficient and effective integration of the human element into system design and operations
      • Safety
      • Productivity
      • Availability
    • Task analysis determines exactly what to teach so that your trainees can perform the task successfully on the job.
    • It helps you to collect information, organise it, and then use it to make various judgements and reach decisions
      • what to train
      • how to train
      • how well to train
      • how much to spend on training

Skills & Knowledge

      • Knowledge is the information related to the task that a worker must possess in order to carry out the task effectively.
      • It includes key terms, concepts, facts, principles and procedures that enable the worker to make correct decisions and perform each task element (step).


      • Skill is a learned ability to use one’s knowledge readily to do something or get something done.
      • Thus, a worker with the knowledge of a task does not guarantee that his ability to do it.
        • The worker has to practice applying related knowledge in order to have the skills to perform the task.
        • What technical knowledge is required for performing each sub-task?
        • What specific science-related principles, rules or concepts apply?
        • What specific mathematical concepts, skills or functions apply?
        • Are there any terms, codes, organisational or functional relationships that need to be known for performing the task?
        • What are the lifeskills needed of the workers in performing the specific task that are transferable to other tasks?

Training Guidelines

  • They are good, sound training practices that have been established as rules of thumb, pieces of advice or suggestions to guide trainers on how training should be done
  • They provide guidance by suggesting possible training/teaching structure, delivery modes/instructional settings and methods according to the training requirements determined for each OJT task
  • They aim to standardise training as the information provided is meant for all trainers and not any particular trainer to follow
  • You may consider and provide this basic training/teaching structure for the OJT trainers/coaches to follow and guide their learners to acquire and reflect on the knowledge and skills required by the OJT task.

Task OJT-hours (duration)

  • What is the time taken for each sub-task
  • How long are the inherent process times?
  • How long are the wait times, stabilisation times, etc?


  • Competence focuses on equipping you with the knowledge and skills to perform the task
  • Competence for a specific whole task would demand that your target learners have the specific knowledge, skills, and attitude required of the task and the ability to use them in an appropriate and integrated way to perform the task.
  • Specifies what an individual should be able to do for a specific task on the job more efficiency and productivity
  • Example:
    • Explain the type of Thermometer used to measure the body temperature (Cognitive / Tell)
    • List the symptom of fever (Cognitive / Tell)
    • Measure body temperature (Psychomotor / Application (Do))
    • Measure height/weight/body mass index (Psychomotor / Application (Do)
    • Perform hand washing (Psychomotor / Application (Do))
    • Handle and dispose body fluids/waste (Psychomotor / Application (Do))

Learning outcomes

  • Describe what trainees should achieve and be able to demonstrate as a result of participating in the learning activities of a training programme
  • Specify the intended endpoint that the training programme is trying to achieve
  • They should be explicit statements of achievement, always contain “verbs” and use language that trainees can easily understand
  • At the end of the lesson, the trainee should “Tell-me” and Show-me” align to the LO set by the instructor or OJT plan

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